You can create simple material effects with basic wavy lines, curves and overlaps.
Ribbons can look more realistic through the addition of a second set of lines. In the first drawing the appearance is more like shoe laces and in the second with extra lines added it becomes more ribbon like.
Running patterns off of items such as the tie helps suggest 3D and makes the item more realistic.
To see simple lines and curves in use within a Mind Map check out the De-Clutter Mind Map
More Drawing Tips can be found here.